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Yak Sva

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Living Arts . Arts for Humanitarian Causes and Educational Arts.

Yak (Giant) Sva (Monkey) are  the main charactors in  one of Ramayana Episodes. A Fundraiser for 192 Children at OCTO Orphanage.

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Morodok Funan Arts Association

- With high respects to Mr. Chhing Chomuny, Director of Royal University of Fine Arts.

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        Morodok Funan Arts Association in partnership with Foundation Subcommittee, Orphan Care and Training Organization and Faculty of Music of Royal University of Fine Arts, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

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“Peace is possible!” -
Maha Ghosananda’s motto.

“The suffering of Cambodia has been deep.
From this suffering comes Great Compassion.
Great Compassion makes a peaceful Heart.
A Peaceful Heart makes a Peaceful Person.
A Peaceful Person makes a Peaceful Family.
A Peaceful Family makes a Peaceful Community.
A Peaceful Community makes a Peaceful Nation.
And a Peaceful Nation makes a Peaceful World.
May all beings live in Happiness and Peace.”

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Herbal Plants & Their Uses

Khmer name: Ka-ngaok toch

Latine name: Caesalpinia 


Family name: LEGUMINOSAE

English name: Peacock flower

                       Pride of Barbados

Distribution: An introduced specie grown as an ornamental plant in tropical regions of Cambodia.

Parts used: Flowers, bark and root.

Indication: Flowers, barks and root are used in local pharmacopoeia. Infusion of the flowers are reportedly effective against cough and worms. The barks is known to regulate menstruation, while  the powdered root infusions are given to convulsing children.

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Ta Prohm Temple Photo: Nhem Borin

Lora Croft:

Tomb Raider:  Wikipedia

Article by CS. Sakhomp

    Ta Prohm temple, ranked  the World's Top Ten Tourist Site of Ang kor Wat (Tomb Raider Temple ). UNESCO inscribed Ta Prohm on the World Heritage List in 1992.
       Ta Prohm is the temple used in the Tomb Raider movie and is justifiable famous for

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Tomb Raider shot @

Angkor Wat Temple

romantic air of faded grandeur; it was built as a set of concentric galleries. Ecole francais d'Ex- treme Orient called it’s a natural state, conquered by nature of beautiful strangler figs and silk cotton trees bursting through the walls. Today, it ranked a “Top Ten Tourist Sights”, a central point for tourists queuing to take photos in the exact spot that Angelina Jolie stood in the film.

       Ta Prohm temple, ranked  the Top Ten Tou- rist Site of Angkor Wat (Tomb Raider Temple). UNESCO inscribed Ta Prohm on the World Heritage List in 1992.
        Ta Prohm is the temple used in the Tomb Raider movie and is justifiably famous for roma- ntic air of faded grandeur; it was built as a set of concentric galleries. Ecole francais d'Extreme Orient called it’s a natural state, conquered by nature of beautiful strangler figs and silk cotton trees bursting through the walls. Today, it rank- ed a “Top Ten Tourist Sights”, a central point for tourists queuing to take photos in the exact spot that Angelina Jolie stood in the film.

History of Herbalism

Stone Age-Millenniums

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Medical Plants

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Name: Tetrametles 


Loc.Ta Prohm Temple,

       Siem Reap province,


     The tree 10-20 m tall, of the secondary form- ations or of the edges denses forests in Southeast Asia. In Cambodia, the tree grows in the the rui- ns of the temples in Siem Reap province:, some feet have huge stifferings and superficial implan- ting spreading out over a large surface. Spongy, very light wood, used to make matches. ballcoks for wooden rafts when bamboo lacks. The stiffer- ings are sometimes used to make sleds for trans- port of paddy seedling across the flooded plain of Cambodia. In tradional khmer (Cambodian) me- dicine, the infusions of young plants provided with some leaves are prescribed in case of convu-lsions. The barks is part of remedies against liver diseases and rheumatisms.


Excerpt from "Plants used in Cambodia" Book by Professor Dy Phon Pauline, Chairwoman of Science and Culture Commission of Cambodian government and member of Southeast Asia Education Ministries Organization.

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CAMBODIA IN HISTORY: Stone Age-New Millenniums





A Buddhist Concept of Nature

By Dalai Lama
February 4, 1992, at New Delhi, India.

Tonight I will say something about the Buddhist concept of nature.
Nagarjuna said that for a system where emptiness is possible, it is also possible to have functionality, and since functionality is possible, emptiness is also possible. So when we talk about nature, the ultimate nature is emptiness. What is meant by emptiness, or shunyata? It is not the emptiness of existence but rather the emiPtiness of true or independent existence, which means that things exist by dependence upon other factors.
So whether it is the environment that is inhabited, or the inhabitants, both of them are composed of four or five basic elements. These elements are earth, wind, fire, water and vacuum, that is space. About space, in the Kalachakra tantra there is a mention of what is known as the atom of space, particles of space. So that forms the central force of the entire phenomenon. When the entire system of the universe first evolved, it evolved from this central force which is the particle of space, and also a system of universe and would dissolve eventually into this particle of the space. So it is on the basis of these five basic elements that there is a very close inter-relatedness or interrelation between the habitat that is the natural environment and inhabitants, the sentient beings living within it.
Also, when we talk of the elements there are internal elements which are existent inherently within sentient beings; they are also of different levels- some are subtle and some are gross.
So ultimately according to Buddhist teachings the innermost subtle consciousness is the sole sort of creator, itself consisting of five elements, very subtle forms of elements. These subtle elements serve as conditions for producing the internal elements, which form sentient beings, and that in turn causes the existence or evolution of the external elements. So there is a very close interdependence or Interrelationship between the environment and the inhabitants.
Within the meaning of interdependency there are many different levels that things are dependent upon casual factors, or upon their own parts, or the conceptual mind, which actually gives the label, the designation.
The topic that we are discussing today is the interrelationship or interdependence between the natural environment and the sentient beings living within it.
Now here, you see, some of my friends told me that basic human nature is something violent. Then I told my friends, I don't think so. If we examine different mammals, say those animals such as tigers or lions that very much depend on other's life for their basic survival these animals because of their basic nature have a special structure, their teeth and long nails, like that. So, those peaceful animals, such as deer, which are completely herbivorous, their teeth and nails are something different; gentler. So from that viewpoint, we human beings belong to the gentle category, isn't that so? Our teeth, our nails, these are very gentle. So I told my friends, I don't agree with your viewpoint. Basically human beings have a non-violent nature.
Also, about the question of human survival, human beings are social animals. In order to survive you need other companions; without other human beings there is simply no possibility to survive; that is nature's law, that is nature.
Since I deeply believe that basically human beings are of a gentle nature so I think the human attitude towards our environment should be gentle. Therefore I believe that not only should we keep our relationship with our other fellow human beings very gentle and non-violent, but it is also very important to extend that kind of attitude to the natural environment. I think morally speaking we can think like that and we should all be concerned for our environment.
Then I think there is another viewpoint. In this case It IS not a question of morality or ethics, not that question; is a question of our own survival. Not only this generation, but for other generations, the environment is something very important. If we exploit the natural environment in an extreme way, today we might gee-some other benefit but in the long run we ourselves will suffer and other generations will suffer. So when the environment changes, climatic conditions also change. When it changes dramatically, economic structures and many other things also change, even our physical body. So you can seethe great effect from that change. So from that viewpoint this is not only a question of our own survival.
Therefore, in order to achieve more effective results and in order to succeed in the protection, conservation and preservation of the natural environment, first of all, I think, it is also important to bring about internal balance within human beings themselves. Since negligence of the environment - which has resulted in lots of harm to the human community - came about by ignorance of the very special importance of the environment, I think it is very important first of all to instill this knowledge within human beings. So, it is very important to teach or tell people about its importance bring own benefit.        
 Then, one of the other most important things again, as I am always saying, is the importance of compassionate thought. As I mentioned earlier, even from ones own selfish viewpoint, you need other people. So, by showing concern for other people's welfare, sharing other people's suffering, and by helping other people, ultimately one will gain benefit. If one thinks only of oneself and forgets about others, ultimately one will lose. This also is something like nature's law. I think it is quite simple. If you do not show a smile to other people, and show some kind of bad look or like that, the other side wi1l also give a similar response. Isn't that right? If you show other people a very sincere and open attitude there will also be a similar response. So it is quite simple logic.
Everybody wants friends and does not want enemies. The proper way to create friends is through a warm heart and not simply money or power. Friends of power and friends of money are something different. These are not friends.
. A true friend should be a real friend of heart, isn't it so? I am always telling people that those friends who come to you when you have money and power are not your true friends but friends of money and power. Because as soon as your money and power disappear, those friends are also ready to say goodbye, bye-bye. So you see these friends are not reliable. Genuine and true human friends will always share your sorrow, your burdens and will always come to you whether you are successful or unlucky. So the way to create such a friend is not through anger, not mere education, not mere intelligence, but by the heart - a good heart.
So, as I always say if you think in a deeper way if you are going to be selfish, then you should be wisely selfish, not narrow mindedly selfish. From that viewpoint, the key thing is the sense of Universal Responsibility, that is the real source of strength, the real source of happiness.
From that perspective, if in our generation we exploit every available thing: trees, water, mineral resources or anything, without bothering about the next generation, about the future, that's our guilt, isn't it? So if we have a genuine sense of universal responsibility, as the central motivation and principle, then from that direction our relations with the environment will be well balanced. Similarly with every aspect of relationships, our relations with our neighbors, our family neighbors, or country neighbors, will be balanced from that direction.
Actually, in ancient rimes many great thinkers, as well as great spiritual masters were produced in this country, India. So, I feel in modern times these great Indian thinkers, such as Mahatma Gandhi as well as some politicians, implemented these noble ideas like ahimsa in the political arena. In a certain way India's foreign policy of non-alignment is also related to with that kind of moral principle. So I think further expansion, or further development of these noble ideas, or noble actions, in this country is very relevant and very important.
Now in this respect, another thing which I feel to be very important is what is consciousness, what is mind? Up to now, especially I think in the Western world, during the last one or two centuries science and technology have been very much emphasized and that mainly deals with matter.
Now, today, some of the nuclear physicists and neurologists have started investigating and analyzing particles in a very detailed and deep way. While doing so, they found out some kind of involvement from the observer's side which they sometimes call "the knower". What is," the knower"? Simply speaking it is the being, the human being, like the scientists through which ways do scientists know? I think through the brain. Now, about the brain, Western scientists have not yet fully identified the more than hundred billion of cells of the brain. I think out of a hundred billion only a few hundred have been identified so far. So now the mind, whether you call it mind or a special energy of the brain, or consciousness, You will see that there is a relationship between the brain and the mind and the mind and matter. This I think is something important. I feel there should be some sort of dialogue between eastern philosophy and Western science on the basis of the relationship between mind and matter.
In any case, today our human mind is very much looking at or very much involved with the external world. I think we are failing to care for or study the internal world.
We need scientific and material developments in order to survive, in order to get benefits and in order to have more prosperity. Equally we need mental peace. Any doctor cannot inject mental peace: no market can sell mental peace or happiness. With millions and millions of rupees you can buy anything but if you go to a supermarket and say I want peace of mind, then people will laugh. And if you ask a doctor, I want genuine peace of mind, not a dull one, you might get one sleeping pill, or some injection. Although you may get rest, the rest is not in the right sense, is it?
So if you want genuine mental peace or mental tranquility the doctor cannot provide it. A machine like the computer, however sophisticated it may be, cannot provide you with mental peace. Mental peace must come from the mind. So everyone wants happiness, pleasure. Now, compare physical pleasure and physical pain with mental pain or mental pleasure and you will find that the mind is superior, more effective and more dominant. Therefore it is worthwhile to increase mental peace through certain methods. In order to do that it is important to know more about mind. That also, I always feel, is very important. I think that is all.
So when you say environment, or preservation of environment, it is related with many things. Ultimately the decision must come from the human heart, isn't that right? So I think the key point is genuine sense of universal responsibility which is based on love, compassion and clear awareness.

Dalai Lama
Transcript of an address on February 4, 1992, at New Delhi, India. 

Ecology and the Human Heart

According to Buddhist teaching, there is a very close interdependence between the natural environment and the sentient beings living in it. Some of my friends have told me that basic human nature is somewhat violent, but I told them I disagree. If we examine different animals, for examples, those whose very survival depends on taking others lives, such as tigers or lions, we learnt that their basic nature provides them with sharp fangs and claws. Peaceful animals, such as deer, which are completely vegetarian, are gentler and have smaller teeth and no claws. From that viewpoint we human beings have a non-violent nature. As to the question of human survival, human beings are social animals. In order to survive we need companions. Without other human beings there is simply no possibility of surviving; that is a law of nature.

Since I deeply believe that human beings are basically gentle by nature, I feel that we should not only maintain gentle, peaceful relations with our fellow human beings bur also that is very important to extend the same kind of attitude toward the natural environment. Morally speaking, we should be concerned for our whole environment.

Then there is another viewpoint, not just a question of ethics but a question of our own survival. The environment is very important not only for this generation but also for future generations. If we exploit the environment in extreme ways, even though we may get some money or other benefit from it now, in the long run we ourselves will suffer and future generations will suffer. When the environment changes, climatic conditions also change. When they change dramatically, the economy and many other things change as well. Even our physical health will be greatly affected. So this is not merely a moral question but also a question of our own survival.

Therefore, in order to succeed in the protection and conservation of the natural environment, I think it is important first of all to bring about an internal balance within human beings themselves. The abuse of the environment, which has resulted in such harm to the human community, arose out of ignorance of the importance of the environment. I think it is essential to help people to understand this. We need to teach people that the environment has a direct bearing on our own benefit.
I am always talking about the importance of compassionate thought. As I said earlier, even from your own selfish viewpoint, you need other people. So, if you develop concern for other people's welfare, share other people's suffering, and help them, ultil11ately you will benefit. If you think. only of yourself and forget about others, ultimately you will lose. That is also something like a law of nature.

It is quite simple: if you do not smile at people, but frown at them, they respond similarly, don't they? If you deal with other people in a very sincere, open way, they behave similarly. Every body wants to have friends and does not want enemies. The proper way to create friends is to have a warm heart, not simply money or power. The friend of power and the friend of money are something different: These are not true friends. True friends should be real friends of heart, shouldn't they? I am always telling people that those friends who come around when you have money and power are not truly your friends, but friends of money and power, because as soon as the money and power disappear, those friends are also ready to leave. They are not reliable.

Genuine, human friends stand by whether you are successful or unlucky and always share your sorrow and burdens. The way to make such friends is not by being angry, nor by having good education or intelligence, but by having a good heart.

To think more deeply, if you must be selfish, then be wisely selfish, not narrow-mindedly selfish. The key thing is the sense of universal. responsibility; that is the real source of strength, the real source of happiness. If our generation exploits everything available - the trees, the water, and the minerals - without any care for the coming generations or the future, then we are at fault, aren't we? But if we have a genuine sense of universal responsibility as our central motivation, then our relations with our neighbors, both domestic and international.

Another important question is: What is consciousness, what is the mind? In Western world during the last one or tWo centuries there has been great emphasis on science and technology, which mainly deal with matter. Today some nuclear physicists and neurologists say that when you investigate particles in a very detailed way, there is some kind of influence from the side of the observer, the knower. What is this knower? A simple answer is; A human being, the scientist. How does the scientist know? With the brain, Western scientists have identified only a few hundred so far. Now, whether you call it mind, brain, or consciousness, there is a relationship between brain and mind and also mind and matter. I think this is important. I feel it is possible to hold some sort of dialogue between Eastern Philosophy and Western science on the basis of this relationship.
In any case, these days we human beings are very much involved in the external world, while we neglect the internal world. We do need scientific development and material development in order to survive and to increase the general benefit and prosperity, but equally as much we need mental peace. Yet no doctor can give you an injection of mental peace, and no market can sell it to you. If you go to a supermarket with millions and millions of dollars, you can buy anything, but if you go there and ask for peace of mind, people will laugh. And if you ask a doctor for genuine peace of mind, not the mere sedation you get from taking some kind of pill or injection, the doctor cannot help you.
Even to day's sophisticated computers cannot provide you with mental peace. Mental peace must come from the mind. Everyone wants happiness and pleasure, but if we compare physical pleasure and physical pain with mental pleasure and mental pain, we find that the mind is more effective, predominant, and superior. Thus it is worthwhile adopting certain methods to increase mental peace, and in order to do that it is important to know more about the mind. When we talk about preservation of the environment, it is related to many other things. The key point is to have genuine sense of universal responsibility, based on love and compassion, and clear awareness.

Excerpt from My Tibet (Text by H.H.the Fourteenth Dalai Lama: Photographs and Introduction by Galen Rowell) Thames and Hudson Ltd., London, 1990 (p 53-54).

Spirituality and Nature


I think you came here with some expectation, bur essentially I've nothing to offer you. Simply, I'll try to share some of my own experiences and my views. You see, taking care of the planet is nothing special, nothing sacred, and nothing holy. It is something like taking care of our own house. We have no other planet or house except this one. Although there are a lot of disturbances and problems, this is our only alternative. We can't go to other planets. For example, take the moon; it looks or appears beautiful from a distance bur if you go there and settle there it is horrible. This is what I think. So you see, our blue planet is much better and happier. So, therefore, we have to care of our- own place or house or planet.
After all, the human being is a social animal. I often tell my friends that they have no need to study philosophy, these professional, complicated subjects. By simply looking at these innocent animals, insects, ants, bees, etc., quite often I develop some kind of respect for them. How? Because they have no religion, no constitution, no police force, nothing. But they live in harmony through the natural law of existence or nature's law or system.

We human beings, what is wrong with us? We human beings have such intelligence and human wisdom. I think we often use human intelligence in a wrong way or direction. As a result, in a way, we are doing certain actions which essentially go against basic human nature.

From a certain viewpoint, religion is a little bit of a luxury. If you have religion, very good; even without religion you can survive and you can manage, but without human affection we can't survive.
Although anger and hatred, like compassion and love, are part of our mind, still I believe the dominant force of our mind is compassion and human affection. Therefore, usually I call these human qualities spirituality. Not necessarily as a religious message or religion in that sense. Science and technology together with human affection will be constructive. Science and technology under the control of hatred will be destructive.

If we practice religion properly, or genuinely, or religion is not something outside but in our hearts. The essence of any religion is good heart. Sometimes I call love and compassion a universal religion. This is my religion. Complicated philosophy, this and that, sometimes create more trouble and problems. If these sophisticated philosophies are useful for the development of good heart, then good: use them fully. If these complicated philosophies or systems become an obstacle to a good heart then better to leave them. This is what I feel.

If we look closely at human nature affection is the key to a good heart. I think the mother is a symbol of compassion. Everyone has a seed of good heart. The only thing is whether we take care or not to realize the value of compassion.
An address to the four-day ecumenical Middlebury Symposium on religion and the environment, Middlebury College, Vermont, USA, delivered on September 14, 1990.



The best asset religion offers is the moral framework by which practitioners must abide. Since many environmental problems have stemmed from human activity, it follows that religion might hold some solutions to mitigating destructive patterns. Buddhism idealizes and emphasizes interconnection, thereby creating a mindset that creates a productive and cooperative relationship between humans and nature. That all actions are based on the premise of interconnection makes the Buddhist mindset affective in generating modesty, compassion, and balance among followers, which may ultimately mitigate the harm done to the environment.

One benefit of the Buddhist interconnected mindset is the inevitable humility that ensues. Because humans are entwined with natural systems, damage done upon the Earth is also harm done to humans. This realization is quite modifying to a human race that historically pillages the Earth for individual benefit. When rational humans minimize the split between humanity and nature and bridge the gaps, only then will a mutual respect emerge in which all entities coexist rather than fight. Buddhism maintains that the reason for all suffering comes from attachment. When release from the tight grasp humanity has on individuality and separateness occurs, then oneness and interconnection is realized. So rather than emphasizing winners and losers, humanity will understand its existence within others; this results in a modesty that ends egoic mind.

Another benefit of Buddhist practice to the environment is the compassion that drives all thinking. When humans realize that they are all connected, harm done to another will never benefit the initiator. Therefore, peaceful wishes for everyone and everything will ultimately benefit the initiator. Through accepting that the web of life is connected—if one entity benefits, all benefit—then the prevailing mindset encourages peaceful actions all the time. If everything depends on everything else, then only beneficial events will make life situations better. Acceptance of compassion takes training and practice, which is also encouraged by Buddhist moral conduct in the form of mediation. This habitual striving for harmony and friendship among all beings creates a more perfect relationship between humanity and nature.

Lastly, Buddhist mindset relies on taking the middle road or striving for balance. Siddhartha Gautama, the founder of Buddhism, spent his life searching for the outlet of human suffering, eventually concluding that a balance must be established between self-destruction and self-indulgence. While modern, industrial humans emphasize economic and social aspects of life and lastly environmental aspects, this view is lopsided. When human preferences are leveled with environmental preferences—giving a voice to natural systems as well as human systems—then can balance and harmony be realized.

Therefore, using this idealized and disciplined framework that Buddhism has to offer can create lasting solutions to amending the broken relationship between humanity and nature. What ensues is an ethic, rather than a short-term policy or technological fix. When never-ending consumption patterns cease for the betterment of the world as a whole, then all systems will harmoniously interact in a non-abusive way. Without needing to adopt a new religion, just recognizing and accepting this mindset can help to heal the environmental injuries of the past.

Buddhists today are involved in spreading environmental awareness. In a meeting with the U.S Ambassador to the Republic of India Timothy J. Roemer, the Dalai Lama urged the U.S to engage China on climate change in Tibet. The Dalai Lama has also been part of a series on discussions organised by the Mind and Life Institute; a non profit organisation that specializes on the relationship between science and Buddhism. The talks were partly about ecology, ethics and interdependence and issues on global warming were brought up.


Buddhism on Biocentrism (Ethics)

In Buddhism: Buddha teachings encourage people "to live simply, to cherish tranquility, to appreciate the natural cycle of life."  Buddhism emphasizes that everything in the universe affects everything else. "Nature is an ecosystem in which trees affect climate, the soil, and the animals, just as the climate affects the trees, the soil, the animals and so on. The ocean, the sky, the air are all interrelated, and interdependent—water is life and air is life." 


Although this holistic approach is more ecocentric than biocentric, it is also biocentric as it maintains that all living things are important and that humans are not above other creatures or nature. Buddhism teaches that "once we treat nature as our friend, to cherish it, then we can see the need to change from the attitude of dominating nature to an attitude of working with nature—we are an intrinsic part of all existence rather than seeing ourselves as in control of it."



Main article: Christianity and environmentalism

Christianity has a historic concern for nature and the natural world. At the same time, ecological concerns operate in tension with anthropocentric values, such as the Biblical notion of human dominion over the Earth. (Gen 1:28) A broad range of Christian institutions are engaged in the environmental movement and contemporary environmental concerns.


Latter Day Saint movement

Mormon environmentalists find theological reasons for stewardship and conservationism through biblical and additional scriptural references including a passages from the Doctrine and Covenants: "And it pleaseth God that he hath given all these things unto man; for unto this end were they made to be used, with judgment, not to excess, neither by extortion" (D&C 59:20). The Latter Day Saint movement has a complex relationship with environmental concerns, involving not only the religion but politics and economics.In terms of environmentally friendly policies, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has a history of utilizing elements of conservationist policies for their meetinghouses. The church first placed solar panels on a church meetinghouse in the Tuamotu Islands in 2007. In 2010, the church unveiled five LEED certified meetinghouse prototypes that are that will be used as future meetinghouse designs around the world, the first one having been completed in 2010 in Farmington, Utah.



In Hinduism, practitioners and scholars find traditional approaches to the natural environment in such concepts as dharmic ethics or prakrti (material creation), the development of ayurveda, and readings of vedic literature. Hindu environmental activism also may be inspired by Gandhian philosophy and practical struggles, such as the Bishnoi community in Rajasthan and Chipko resistance to forestry policies in Uttar Pradesh, India.


Hinduism on Biocentrism (Ethics)

In Hinduism: Hinduism contains many elements of biocentrism. In Hinduism, humans have no special authority over other creatures, and all living things have souls ('atman'). Brahman (God) is the "efficient cause" and Prakrti (nature), is the "material cause" of the universe. However, Brahman and Prakrti are not considered truly divided: "They are one in the same, or perhaps better stated, they are the one in the many and the many in the one."


However, while Hinduism does not give the same direct authority over nature that the Judeo-Christian God grants, they are subject to a "higher and more authoritative responsiblity for creation." The most important aspect of this is the doctrine of Ahimsa (non-violence). The Yājñavalkya Smṛti warns, "the wicked person who kills animals which are protected has to live in hell fire for the days equal to the number of hairs on the body of that animal." The essential aspect of this doctrine is the belief that the Supreme Being incarnates into the forms of various species. The Hindu belief in Saṃsāra (the cycle of life, death and rebirth) encompasses reincarnation into non-human forms. It is believed that one lives 84,000 lifetimes before one becomes a human. Each species is in this process of samsara until one attains moksha (liberation).


Another doctrinal source for the equal treatment of all life is found in the Rigveda. The Rigveda states that trees and plants possess divine healing properties. It is still popularly believed that every tree has a Vriksa-devata (a tree deity).Trees are ritually worshiped through prayer, offerings, and the sacred thread ceremony. The Vriksa-devata worshiped as manifestations of the Divine. Tree planting is considered a religious duty.



Through the tradition from the Quran and the prophets, the environment was made sacred. It is believed that God did not create the environment for a random reason, but rather a reflection of truth. One can gain profound knowledge from nature thus, human beings are to preserve it and look after it. Many chapters in the Quran, refer to the beauties of nature as well as the headings of many chapters indicating the importance of it, such as: “ The Sun”, “Dawn”, and “Morning Hours”. Thus man is God’s representative on this planet, if he is not charged with sustaining it, then at least he must not destroy it.


In Islam, the concept of a hima or "inviolate zone" refers to a piece of land that has been set aside to prevent cultivation or any use other than spiritual purposes. See also: Islamic Foundation for Ecology and Environmental Science.


Islam on Biocentrism (Ethics)

In Islam: In Islam, biocentric ethics stem from the belief that all of creation belongs to Allah (God), not humans, and to assume that non-human animals and plants exist merely to benefit humankind leads to environmental destruction and misuse.As all living organisms exist to praise God, human destruction of other living things prevents the earth's natural and subtle means of praising God. The Qu'ran acknowledges that humans are not the only all-important creatures and emphasizes a respect for nature. Muhammad was once asked whether there would be a reward for those who show charity to nature and animals, to which he replied, "for charity shown to each creature with a wet heart [i.e. that is alive], there is a reward."



In Judaism, the natural world plays a central role in Jewish law, literature, and liturgical and other practices. Within the diverse arena of Jewish thought, beliefs vary widely about the human relation to the environment, though the rabbinic tradition has put Judaism primarily on an anthropocentric trajectory. However, a few contemporary Jewish thinkers and rabbis in the USA and Israel emphasized that a central belief in Judaism is that the Man (Ha Adam - האדם whose root comes from Haadama (earth) - האדמה, in Hebrew language), should keep the Earth in the same state as he received it from God, its eternal and actual "owner" (especially for the land of Israel), thus the people today should avoid polluting it and keep it clean for the future generations. According to this opinion, Judaism is clearly in line with the principles of environmental protection and sustainable development.

In Jewish law (halakhah), ecological concerns are reflected in Biblical protection for fruit trees, rules in the Mishnah against harming the public domain, Talmudic debate over noise and smoke damages, and contemporary responsa on agricultural pollution. In Conservative Judaism, a new initiative has adopted ecokashrut ideas begun in the 1970s. In addition, Jewish activists have recruited principles of halakhah for environmental purposes, such as the injunction against unnecessary destruction, known as bal tashkhit.

In contemporary Jewish liturgy, ecological concerns have been promoted by adapting a kabbalistic ritual for the holiday of trees, Tu Bishvat. Biblical and rabbinic texts have been enlisted for prayers about the environment, especially in Orthodox Judaism and Jewish Renewal movements.

In the U.S., a coalition of Jewish environmentalists (COEJL) undertakes both educational and policy advocacy on such issues as biodiversity and global warming.Jewish environmentalists are drawn from all branches of religious life, ranging from Rabbi Arthur Waskow to a growing Orthodox non-profit.In Israel, secular Jews have formed numerous governmental and non-governmental organizations to protect nature and reduce pollution. While Israeli organizations make limited use of Jewish religious teachings, a few do approach Israel's environmental problems from a Jewish standpoint, including an environmental center named after Abraham Joshua Heschel.


Jainism on Biocentrism (Ethics)

In Jainism: The Jaina tradition exists in tandem with Hinduism and shares many of its biocentric elements.

Ahimsa (non-violence), the central teaching of Jainism, means more than not hurting other humans. It means intending not to cause physical, mental or spiritual harm to any part of nature. In the words of Mahavira: ‘You are that which you wish to harm.’Compassion is a pillar of non-violence. Jainism encourages people to practice an attitude of compassion towards all life.

The principle of interdependence is also very important in Jainism. This states that all of nature is bound together, and that "if one does not care for nature one does not care for oneself."


Another essential Jain teaching is self-restraint. Jainism discourages wasting the gifts of nature, and encourages its practitioners to reduce their needs as far as possible. Gandhi, a great proponent of Jainism, once stated "There is enough in this world for human needs, but not for human wants."

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Chinese Medicine:Fraud or Oriental Magic?

World Peace-maker

Herbal Plants & Their Uses

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Written by Chen Yajiao

WED,27 AUGUST 2014

Eye of newt, toe of frog

Chinese government bets billions it’s real

Chinese traditional medicine output is expected to hit as much as U$550 billion (US$ 89.3 billion) by next year, with the government proposing a batch of projects designed to promote the high-tech wedding of western and traditional medicine.

The problem is that there is no real eviden- ce that traditional medicine is anything mo- re than a multibillion dollar patent medici- ne industry with little actual efficacy for patients.


The phrase “Traditional Chinese Medicine” is hard to find in the newest edition of the Chinese textbook Internal Medicine (Nei Ke Xue, 內科學). Traditional Chinese medicine is sometimes considered by the Chinese themselves as an aid to relatively minor ailments including upper respiratory infec- tions and others, but there is absolutely nothing in the textbook about blood disea- ses, the endocrine system, diabetes, or even rheumatic diseases.

“When our family gets really sick, we turn

to western medicine,” one young woman told Asia Sentinel.

Yet TCM is far from dead. Earlier this mon- th, the 10th International Conference & Exhibitionof the Modernization of Chinese Medicine & Health Products was on at the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Center. Exhibitors from Hong Kong, Main- land China and abroad, as well as TCM researchers and Hong Kong citizens, prese- nted or witnessed the modernized fruits of this traditional practice.


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“Peace is possible!” -
Maha Ghosananda’s motto.

“The suffering of Cambodia has been deep.
From this suffering comes Great Compassion.
Great Compassion makes a peaceful Heart.
A Peaceful Heart makes a Peaceful Person.
A Peaceful Person makes a Peaceful Family.
A Peaceful Family makes a Peaceful Community.
A Peaceful Community makes a Peaceful Nation.
And a Peaceful Nation makes a Peaceful World.
May all beings live in Happiness and Peace.”

“The cause of fighting and war is greed, anger, hatred and ignorance. The cause of peace is mortality, concentration, and wisdom. Also truthfulness and gratitude. When we have truth there is no more greed. When there is compassion there is

no more anger. When there is wisdom there is no more ignorance. So there is no more fighting. We must keep morality.


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Khmer name: Ka-ngaok toch

Latine name: Caesalpinia 


Family name: LEGUMINOSAE

English name: Peacock flower

                              Pride of Barbados

Distribution: An introduced specie grown as an ornamental plant in tropical regions of Cambodia.


Description: It is the most attractive plant and may obtain a heig of 5-6 meters tall. The branches are either thornlyor thornless. The leaves are doubly compound with 6-10 leaves. Its large yellow or orange flowers makes it an ornamental tree grown in city avenues. The long flat pods are brownish when pipe and hang down in bunches.

Parts used: Flowers, bark and root.

Indication: Flowers, barks and root are used in local pharmacopoeia. Infusion of the flowers are reportedly effective against cough and worms. The barks is known to regulate menstruation, while  the powdered root infusions are given to convulsing children.

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Khmer name:  Kantuy Kngaok

Latin name: Uraria crinita (Linn)

                         Desv. Ex DC

Family name: LEGUMINOSAE


Description: Sub-shrub, 0.5-2.0 metr- es tall. Sometimes cultivated as a decorative plant.

Distribution:  This specie grows in the open forests and swamps of Cambo- dia. It is commonly found on the edges of dense forests or in bamboo forest.

Built on a history of thousands of years, TCM holds that the body’s vital energy (Qi,) circulates through channels, called

meridians, that have branches connected to bodily organs andfunctions. There are five elem- ents in human bodies – metal, wood, water, fire, and earth. Traditional Chinese medicine claims to balance these five elem- ents to make people healthy. The practice includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage and exercise (qigong, 氣功).

But, for instance, said Marcello Costa, pro- fessor of neurophysiology at the department of physiology at Flinders University in Aust-

ralia, in a local article on TCM’s effective- ness: “None of these ideas have any basis in science.”


As long ago as 1912, the newly established Sun Yat Sen government released the “New Education Act of The Republic of China,” which did not mention Chinese medicine as a branch of education and only encouraged the development of Western medicine, sending up giant waves of argument about Chinese medicine’s validity.


Nonetheless, a full 101 years later, at the Hong Kong Traditional Chinese Medicine exhibition, sponsored by Hong Kong’s Trade Development Council, the audience crowded a booth promoting “magnetic wave therapy." an instrument emitting magnetic waves to imitate acupuncture.

The therapist, according to the brochure, “can assess the health condition of the body

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Paul Knitter, Maha Ghosananda, and Irfan Khan


"The cause of fighting and war is greed, anger, hatred and ignorance. The cause of peace is morality, concentration, and wisdom. Also truthfulness and gratitude. When we have truth there is no more greed. When there is compassion there is no more anger. When there is wisdom there is no more ignorance. So there is no more fighting. We must keep morality.” [Hughes 1998]

“During his lifetime, the Buddha lobbied for peace and human rights. We can learn much form a lobbyist like him. Human rights begin when each man becomes a brother and each woman becomes a sister, when we honestly care for each other. Then Cambodians will help Jews. And Jews will help Africans. And Africans will help others. We will all become servants for each others rights….Any real peace will

Parts used:  Roots, leaves and flowers.

Dosage: The decoction of the roots have reportedly been used against fevers in children and also for intestinal worms and tightness of the chest. It may also be used to control diarrhoea and expel worms. The crushed leaves are reputedly applied to treat hepatic and splenic diseases. Infusion the flowers in used topically on post- smallpox lesions.

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Khmer name: Kamphloe:ng

Latin name: Crinum asiaticum 



English name: Lily poison bulb

Description:  A stout pernnial herb; rootstock bulbous. Leaves liner- lanceolate; fleshy, margin entire and undulate. Flowers, white, lare, fragrant. Fruits subglobose.

Distribution:  Occurs wild or cultiv- ated in gardens as a flowering plant in middle parts of Cambodia.

Parts used: Leaves

Indications: Arthritis, injuries, skin

according to the level of pain felt in the

different acupoints in the palm of the hand, and detect any potential disease within the body and helps organs and systems to fun- ction properly by magnetizing the body flu- id.” As if the craziest dreams of molecular biologists had finally come true.


Arguments between Western and Chinese medicine believers resemble those between Darwinists and creationists. While Western practitioners point out that there is no sci- entific basis for TCM, believers insist that it works beyond the edges of modern medical science under the guidance of “Oriental wisdom.”

Nevertheless, the Chinese public still has general confidence in acupuncture, patent drugs for common colds and external-use for pain and swelling from injuries.


Whether or not there is any basis to it, the Hong Kong government made traditional medicine an official part of the Hong Kong health care system since 1997, with its legal status officially confirmed under the Basic Law.

Compared with the mainland, Hong Kong has a more advanced testing and certific- ation system for traditional medicine, and many players in the industry believe the territory is a convergence point for Oriental and Western cultures.


But then, at the recent TDC exhibition, the exhibitors run the gamut of believability. A Ms. Miyake flies to Hong Kong, gracious in a kim- ono as she represents a Japanese company producing enzyme products, which, they claim, can produce “anti-aging and lustrous skin.”

Mulberry leaf tea is also presented, featured with hypoglycemic effects. The company doesn’t really relate to Chinese medicine, Miyake says, but the products are made of natural herbs and good for people’s health, which share the symbol of oriental wisdom.

Herbal products have become a rising trend. Despite non-Chinese manufacturers, considerable Hong Kong and mainland

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Maha Ghosananda & Dalailama

not favor East, West, North, or South. A peaceful Cambodia will be friendly to all. Peace is nonviolent, and so we Cambodians will remain nonviolent toward all as we rebuild our country. Peace is based on justice and freedom, and so a peaceful Cambodia will be just and free.


“Don’t struggle with people, with men. Struggle with the goals and conditions that make men fight each other.”


“What can Buddhism do to heal the wounds of the world? What did the Buddha teach that we can use to heal and elevate the human condition? One of the Buddha’s most courageous acts was to walk onto a battlefield to stop a conflict. He did not sit in his temple waiting for the oppressors to approach him. He walked right onto the battlefield to stop the conflict.
“We Buddhists must find the courage to leave our temples and enter the temples of contemporary human experience, temples filled with suffering. If we listen to the Buddha, Christ or Gandhi, we can do nothing else. The refugee camps, the prisons, the ghettos, and the battlefield will then become our temples. We have so much work to do.”

“I do not question that loving one’s oppressors – Cambodians loving the Khmer Rouge – may be the most

infections and herpes.


Dosage: Leaves are heated and it is adhered on arthritis and injuries. Expressed juice of fresh leaves isexternally used for skin infection and herbes.

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Khmer name: Kantum thet

Latin name:  Leucaena glauca

                          (Willd). Benth

Family name:  LEGUMINOSAE

English name: Leucaenan

                              Lead tree

Description: Branchy shrub, 2-8 metres tall with small, opposite and compound leaves. The fruits are flat legumes with pods. In coffee tree gardens, it is used for shade. The young leaves are consumed vegetables .The foliage is grazed by cattle.

Distribution: Cultivated in Cambo- dia near houses to make quick hedges, due to its rapid growth


Parts used: Leaves


Constituents: Amino acids and minosine. Toxic sudstances are also present.

Dosage:   The plant is often used medicinally as an analgesic. Large quantities are toxic to livestock. In pigs and rats, teratogenic effects have been observed.


enterprises also depend on producing herbal health products, which are classified as “food” thereby falling outside of strict phar- maceutical ordinances. Suffering from min- or health problems or simply wanting to keep healthy, the public resorts to these products since “even if they don’t work, they won’t hurt,” as a buyer said.


That may not be true. The UK’s Medicines and Healthcare Products regulatory Agency (MHRA) issued a notice in July 2013 that it planned to halt the sale of Chinese patent drugs this year. The Swedish National Food Agency also found extremely high levels of arsenic in Niuhuang Jiedu Pian, a herbal supplement purported to cure fevers, and warned other European Union countries that it constitutes a serious health risk.

There is also deep concern in other count- ries as poachers harvest rhinoceros horns, tiger penises, bear claws and gall bladders and other animal parts which have been proven to have no therapeutic effect what- soever but which an increasingly rich Chin- ese popul- ation demands for imagined male potency and other cures.

Nonetheless, the economic motivation behi- nd the TCM industry is strong in Greater China. Mainland sales reached RMB423

billion in 2011, with a 24 percent compou- nded annual growth rate over 2003-11, vs. 21 percent for western medicines.


Encouraged by the market boom, the Chin- ese government announced an ambitious attempt in 2007 to bring traditional medi- cine into line with modern standards, expa- nd basic and clinical research, and improve the testing and developing of remedies for export.

Such support was apparent at the TCM Exhibition in Hong Kong. Wang Zizhong, a director of Trade Department of Jilin Prov- ince, has attended the exhibition annually since 2005. He is here to help TCM enter- prises and raw material producers in Jilin cooperate with Hong Kong manufacturers.

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difficult attitude to achieve. But it is a way of the universe that retaliation, hatred, and revenge only continue the cycle and never stop it. Reconciliation does not mean that we surrender rights and conditions. It means that we see ourselves in the opponent – for what is the opponent but a being in ignorance, and we ourselves are also ignorant of many things. Therefore,only loving kindness and right mindfulness can free us. [From his essay The Human Family.]


Universal Love Many religious leaders preach that there is the only way to salvation. I listen with a smile but I do not agree.

Two thousand five hundred years ago, the Buddha told his disciple Kalama:
Do not accept anything simply because it has been said by your teacher, Or beca-

use it has been written in your sacred books, Or because it has been believed by many, Or because it has been handed down by your ancestors.

Accept and live only according to what will enable you to see truth face to face.

“How can ordinary people become peacemakers?” someone asked Maha Ghosananda.
He responded: “Just take care of yourself. Just love yourself. Be compassionate with yourself. Then you are a peace-maker. Peace begins with you.”

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Khmer name: Chhouk

Latin name:  Nelumbo nucifera  



French name: Lotus

English name: Sacred lotus

Description:  An erect large attrac- tive herb; root stock stout, creepi- ng underground rhizome. Leaves raised high abve the water orbicu-

lar, peltate, membranous, entire, petioles very long, smooth or rough with prickles. 

Inflorescence solitary: cymes; flowers white or rosy-pink or rosy-red, large. Fruits torus spongy, top shaped. Seeds  black slighrly elongated spherical.

Description: Grows wild and culti- vated in ponds and swamps for its scented flowers.

Parts used: Roots, fruits, pollens.

Indications: Vomiting, haemop-tysis, tachycardia, pyrexia, stiffness of neck, giddiness, restlessness, leucorrhoea, spermatorrhoea, impotency, aging.

Dosage: Dried powder is orally used in a dose of 8-10 gm per day and decoction is used in the dose of 25-50 ml per day.

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“Jilin is famous as a major producer of TCM raw materials such as ginseng, deer antlers, and Oviductus Ranae [dried fatty tisssue fo-

und near the fallopian tubes of tree frogs],”

Mr. Wang says, “TCM is one of the pillar

industries of Jilin. We look to export our products to Hong Kong or even abroad.”


The political environment for TCM was mu- ch gloomier decadesago. In 1929, under the Republic of China, committee members of  the Ministry of Health agreed unanimously that the practice of medicine requires know- ledge of pharmacy, anatomy, physiology, pathology and microbiology. Without any such knowledge, Chinese doctors were ruled as not qualified for medical practice, devastating their livelihood and triggering protests by traditional practitioners.

The Republic of China retreated to Taiwan in 1949. Chinese medicine did not. It has now been given recognition by the State Ad- ministration of Traditional Chinese Medic- ine, established to develop the industry. By 2015 industry output is expected to exceed RMB550 billion (US$89.3 billion). They propose a batch of projects for “developme-

nt of high-technology TCM” and “the prom- otion of the fusion of Chinese and Western medicine”.


In China, the war between supporters of Western and Chinese medicine has never ended. In 2006, Fang Zhouzi, a well-known

 popular scientific writer campaigning agai- nst pseudoscience and fraud in China, toge- ther with university professor Zhang Gong- yao, waged an opinion attack against TCM. As it always goes in the world of Chinese netizens, the opinion attack escalated into a war of mutual abuse and ended with both sides hating each other even more.

On the other hand, as a special kind of sto- cks that only exists in Mainland China, TCM plate is witnessing increasing buys as the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connection drawing near.

What would you like to taste? The pills or the shares?

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Maha Ghosananda & Dalailama

Greet each other

During his lifetime, the Buddha lobbied for peace and human rights. We can learn much more from a lobbyist like him. Human Rights begin when each man becomes a brother and each woman becomes a sister, when we honestlycare for each other. Then Cambodians will help Jews, and Jews will help Africans, and Africans will help others. We will all become servants for each other’s rights.

It is so even in my tiny country. Until Cambodians are concerned with Vietnam’s right to exist and be free, and with Thailand’s rights, and even with China’s rights, we will be denied our own rights.
When we accept that we are part of a great human family – that every man and every woman has the nature of Buddha, Allah, and Christ – the new will sit, talk, make peace, and bring humanity to its fullest flowering.
I pray that all of us will realize peace in this lifetime, and save all beings from suffering!
Peacemaking is at the heart of life. We peacemakers must meet as often as possible to make peace in ourselves, our countries, and the whole world.

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Khmer name: Thnot

Latin name: Barassus flabellifer 


Family name: PALMAE

French name: Palmier a sucre

English name: Toddy plam

Description: Tall, stout, unarmed trunk, often swollen above the middle Leaves palmate, fan-shaped rigidly coriaceous, margin spinous; Inflorescence Spadix; flowers dio- ecious male minute, perinth glum- aceous, female very large, sessile, clothed with large coriaceous roun- ded bracts. Fruits drupe, districtly trigonous in young, perfectly globe in mature, fibrous outside, fleshy

mesocarp inside.

Distribution: Grows wild or culti- vated in many places especially in the tropical region of Cambodia.

Parts used:   Roots, buds, toddy

                         (ie-juice from buds).


Indications:  Dyspepsia, flatulence, to promote digestions, as a central nervous system stimulant, As ton-

ic,abdominal colic, to increase hae- mopoesis and spermatogenesis, for laxation.


Dosage:  Root is macreated and it orally taken in  a dose of 500-150 ml for digestion, relaxation, and to alleviate dyspepsia and flatulence. Sweet toddy is drunk as stimulant and tonic agent. Ash of bud is orally taken in a dose 250 ml daily for indigestion and colic. Jaggery (ie- the product obtained by evap- oration of sweet juice) is taken as a snack and food to increase haemo-poesis and spermatogenesis.

Notice: This information is soley for education purpose, any

              question or concern please contact the author direct.

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Angkor Centre for Conservation of Biodiversity

Mammals at ACCB

Pileated Gibbon (Hylobates pileatus)

This primate species

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belongs to the gibbon family which is also known as lesser apes. It lives in Cambodia, Laos and Thailand. Males and females can be distinguished from each other by their colour. Males have a black fur, only fingers, toes and the fur around the genitals is white. Females have a grey to beige fur with black belly, vertex and cheeks. Both sexes have a white-furred collar which is often shaggy. Pileated gibbons are diurnal inhabitants of dense primeval forest. The IUCN lists the species as endangered (EN). 

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Maha Ghosananda Rally World Leaders for Peace

And real peace will not favor East, West, North or South. A peaceful Cambodia will be friendly to all. Peace is nonviolent, and we Cambodians will remain nonviolent toward all as we rebuild our country. Peace is based on justice and freedom, and so a peaceful Cambodia will be just and free.

Our journey of peace begins today and every day. Making peace is our life. We must invite people from around the world to join in our journey. As we make peace for ourselves and our country, we make peace for the whole world.

In 1981, the United Nations held a conference to discuss the future of Cambodia. During that time, we held a Buddhist ceremony for peace, at the end of the ceremony, a Khmer Rouge leader came up to me, very cautiously, and asked if I would come to Thailand to build a temple at the border. I said that I would.
“Oh!” thought many people. “He is talking to the enemy. He is helping the enemy! How can he do that?” I reminded them that love embraces all beings, whether they are noble-minded or low-minded, good or evil.
Both the noble and the good are embraced because loving kindness flows to them spontaneously. The unwholesome-

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Khmer name: Moogkhut

Latin name: Garcinia

                        mangostana Linn

Family name: GUTTIFERAE

French name: Mangoustanier


English name: Mangosteen



Description: Tree, 10—12 metred tall.The leaves are ismple, opposite, ovate or ellipti oblong and dark green. The flowers are solidarity, axillary in uppermost leaf-axil, yellowish gree with red edges or

almost entirely red. The fruits are berry, depressed-globuse, dark purple and 1-3 seeded. The arillus,

white part surround the seeds,is delicious, sweet and aromatic, with a deliciou flavour. The pericap gives a black dye.

Distribution:  Originating from Sunda and Moluccas Islands, it was introduced into Cambodia as a fruit tree and cultivated for domestic and commercial use.

Parts used: Rind and pulp of the fruit, leaves and bark.

Constituents: Rind contains a bitter substance mangostin, resin and ta- nnin. Mangostin is obtained by boi- ling the rind in water and tannin is removed by exhausting in boiling alcohol and evaporating .The resul- ting product is mangostin and resin The leaves contain xanthones with

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Silvered Langur (Trachypithecus germaini)

The Silvered Langur or Silvery Lutung, as the name indicates,

has silvery fur, with

  darker tips and yellowish at the tail.

The species is diurnal and lives inharem groups in the dense primeval forest. Langurs have developed a highly complex stomach due to the digestion of the cellulose from leafs and fruit. Their habitat continues to be destroyed by illegal logging and non-sustainable agriculture.

Northern Slow Loris or Bengal Loris(Nyctice busbengalensis)

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The slow lorises are small nocturnal and arboreal primates from Southeast Asia that prefer the tops of the trees and have slow, deliberate movements. Depending on the author, 3-5 species are distinguished. The Bengal Loris lives in Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Burma, Thailand and Vietnam. The population trends of this species are unknown, but it has been intensively hunted as it is a popular pet species and used in traditional medicine in many ways. A special characteristic of slow lorises are glands at the arms. The secretion, mixed with saliva, is a toxin so that bites can result in painful swelling and anaphylactic shocks. Therefore, the teeths of slow loris are pulled out for the pet trade.   

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Malayan Pangolin (Manis javanica)



The Malayan Pangolin, like all species of pangolin, shows large scales on the skin. When threatened, pangolins use these scales as armour, rolling up into a ball by wrapping the tail completely around the body. The species lives on the ground, but is able to climb on trees as well. Being nocturnal, animals spent the days in tree holes and burrows. At night they start searching for their food: ants and termites.

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minded must be included because they are the ones who need loving kindness the most. In many of them, the seed of goodness may have died because warmth was lacking for its growth. It perished from coldness in a world without compassion. Gandhi said that he was always ready to compromise. He said, “behind my non-cooperation there is always the keenest desire to cooperate, on the slightest pretext, even with the worst of opponents. To me, a very imperfect mortal is ever in need of God’s grace, ever in need of the Dharma. No one is beyond redemption.”
I do not question that loving one’s oppressors – Cambodians loving the Khmer Rouge – may be a most difficult attitude to achieve. But it is a law of the universe that retaliation, hatred and revenge only continue the cycle and never stop it. Reconciliation does not mean that we surrender rights and conditions, but rather than we sue love in all of our negotiations. It means that we see ourselves in the opponent – for what is the opponent but a being in ignorance, and we ourselves are also ignorant of many things. Therefore, only loving kindness and right mindfulness can free us.
Gandhi said, “The more you develop ahimsa in your being, the more infectious it becomes, until it overwhelms your surroundings and, by and by, it might over sweep the world!” we are each individually responsible for our own salvation and our own happiness. Through our service, we find a road to salvation. This service is nothing but our love for all beings and the uplifting of ignorance into light.

the wood containing xanthone gly- cosides. The fruit peel contains chr- ysanthemin and xanthones.

Dosage:  It is used in traditional Cambodian medicine in the form of decoction against diarrhoea and dysentery.The rind, bark and young leaves is a poweful astringent. The rind, pulp or the entire dried fruit are used in chronic diarrhoea and dysentery, usually in the form of syruo. Mangosteen fruit in powder formed may by a remedy in leucor- rhoea and gonorrhoea is stated to lessen both the irritation and disc- harge of matter A compound powd- er consisting of mangostin, cubeds,

Alum and gum acacia, is a good for gonorrhoea. Mangostin , the natur- ally occuring xanthone, has shown both CNS depressive activity and anti-inflammatory activity. Potent- ial anti-HIV activity has been inve- stigated with positive results.

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Khmer name: Traa Baek Prey

Latin name: Lagerstroemia 

                       floribunda Jack

Family name: LYTRACEAE

English name: Rose of India

                           Pride of India

Plant Characteristic: A shrub or small tree,2-10 metres tall, with near vertical branches. The bark is

smooth and peels off in strips. This plant has large paired leaves which are oblong in shape. The purplish-

pink flowers are born in fairly den-

se clusters. The capsules are also egg-shaped and have  prominent

Spikes at the trip.

Growing Place: Grows wild in the forests of Cambodia, especially in the hilly regions in the western and eastern provinces of Cambodia. Of- ten cultivated as a decorative plant along the avenues in the main cit- ies.

Usage Part:  Bark, leaves and fruits.

With their powerful claws they easily get through the soil. Due to this specialized diet and delicate nature, pangolins are extremely difficult to keep in captivity. The IUCN listed this species previously as near threatened. However, due to the fact that all species of Asian Pangolins are heavily hunted for use in traditional medicines or as a delicacy, its status was upgraded to endangered (EN) in 2008. Deforestation of primeval forest and destruction of the habitat are also imminent threats to the species so that the wild populations may decrease rapidly soon.

Asian Palm Civet (Paradoxurus herma­phroditus)
The Asian Palm Civet belongs to the family of Viverridae and has

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a thick, rough black coat

The Asian Palm Civet belongs to the family of Viverridae and has a thick, rough black coat and a racoon-like face colour. The species lives in the tropical rainforests all over South and East Asia.

Like most Viverridae, the Asian palm civet is a nocturnal animal and sleeps in tree holes during the day. Its diet consists of insects and fruits, among them coffee cherries. These fruits receive a special flavour by the partial digestion of the animal and are harvested by men from its faeces to process the famous coffee “Kopi Luwak”.

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Leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis)
The Leopard Cat is a small wild cat in the size of the domestic

cat that lives in South and East Asia.

Due to its large distribution area, several subspecies are distinguished that may exist

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Maha Ghosananda &

Pope John Paul II 1986

Many Buddhists are suffering – in Tibet, Cambodia, Laos, Burma, Vietnam and elsewhere. The most important thing we Buddhists can do is to foster the liberation of the human spirit in every nation of the human family. We must use our religious heritage as a living resource.
What can Buddhism do to heal the wounds of the world? What did the Buddha teach that we can use to heal and elevate the human conditions? One of the Buddha’s most courageous acts was to walk onto a battlefield to stop a conflict. In the west, we call this ‘conflict resolution.’

How do we resolve a conflict, a battle, a power struggle? What does reconciliation really mean? Gandhi said that the essence of nonviolent action is that it seeks to put an end to antagonism, not antagonists. This is important. The opponent

Treatment:  Infusion of the bark is reputedly effective against diar- rhoea. The leaves and theripe fruits contain a principle similar to that of insulin, which may produce good results in the tretment of diabets. Research has shown that the plant may possess anti-obesity activity.

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Khmer name: Kantuot

Latin name: Phyllanthus acidus


Family name: Euphorbiaceae

English Name: Otaheite


Habitat: This specie is found in al provinces in Cabbodia and is grow- n for domestic use. The are two var- ieties, sweet fruits and very sour fruits.

Description: Shrub, 2-8 meters tall. The leaves are stalkless and attractive. The flowers are petalless, tiny, reddish and are found in clu- sters on branches. The acidic fruits are edibe. The pericarp is smooth while the fruit itself has a flattened base and apex with an angular tiny seed, they may be found in markets. The leaves and shoots are used as vegetables and the sour fruits are often pickled or put in stews.

Used:  Stalk and leaves

Constituents: Toxic substances, norbisabolane glycosides. Shoot and leaves contain minerals and organic acids.

Medicinal Used: In traditional Cambodian medic the stalks and leaves are reputedly used as an

in different kind of habitats. The overallpopulation is not endangered, but regionally the species has become rare.

The Leopard Cat is a solitary nocturnal animal and sleeps in tree holes or cavities during the day. Its diet consists of small mammals, birds, reptiles and insects as well as fish and crustaceans.

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Gibbon at the Angkor Centre for Conservation of Biodiversity


has our respect. We implicitly trust his or her human nature and understand that ill-will is caused by ignorance. By appeal- ing to the best in each other, both of us achieve the satisfaction peace. We both become peacemakers. Gandhi called this a “bilateral vict- ory.” We Buddhists must find the courage to leave our temples and enter the temples of the human experience, temples that are filled with suffer- ing. If we listen to the Buddha, Chr- ist, Gandhi, we can do nothing lese. The refugee camps, the prisons, the ghettos, and the battlefields then become our temples. We have so much work to do.

This will be a slow transformation, for many people throughout Asia have been trained to rely on the traditional monkhood. Many Cambodians tell me, “Venerable monks belong in the temple.” It is difficult for them to adjust to this news role, but we monks must answer the increasingly loud cries of suffering. We only need to remember that our temple is always with us. We are our temple.


Enlightened Shade, Enlightened Life

In the dry season, absence of wind, in the middle of rice field,
The heat is enormous, but the tree can still bare such an ordeal respectfully.

Look! Admire the tree that provides cool shade to men and animals,
Always tolerant of the sun’s rays, in accordance to her nature.

Likewise, the protector provides comfortable shade for others,
He possesses the quality of endurance, struggle for hardship.

Admire the parents! Both of them are protectors of the children,
How have they endured the suffering.

Enlightenment that is achieved by gigantic endeavor,
Will always be the shade of heart.

(Buth Savong, 2003)

emetic. In some regions of Cambo- dia, leaves have reputedly been

used as a poultice against lumbago and sciatica. Infusion of the roots also medicinal properties.

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Khmer name: Chii Neangvorng

Latin name: Ocimum basilicum


Family name: Labiatae

English Name: Asian Basil Mint

Description: Erect condinent her- b, 30-50 centimeters high, much branched, consiting of stems and  branches striated. The leaves are sitmple, opposite, having blades lanccolate to elliptic, apex and base acute. The flowers are white or pur- ple. The fruits are composed of 4 dry 1 seeded nutlets. The mucilgin- ous seeds are mixed with water to make soft drinks and is drunk gen- erally sweetened.

Habit: Cultivated in the tropical regions of Cambodia as a culinary herb.

Parts used: Whole plants and seeds.


Constituent: Volatile oils includ- ing linalool, limonene, and estrago- le. Minor constituents include met- hyl cinnamate, cineole, alphaphell-andrene, beta-caryophyllene and derivatives, ocimene, borneol, eug- enol, methyl eugenol, geraniol, anethole, cadinols, sabinene, myrcene, and limonene, some trace constituents include polyphenolic acids such as caffeic and ascorbic acid.


Medicinal Use: The seeds are us- eful in chronic inflammation, chro- nic diarrhoea, dysentery, gonorrh- oea, nephritis, cystitis and internatl piles. They also relieve the pains of  partutitionn and often used as an aphrodisiac. Decoction of the plant is used as an irrigation in nasal my- osis  produces anaesthesia. Infusi- ons have also reputedanti-parasitic,

Tonle Sap Lake and Bird Sanctuary

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Prek Toal Bird Sanctuary & Floating Village of the Prek Toal Bird Sanctuary, flooded forest and traditional floating villages of the Tonle Sap Lake, a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. Your experience contributes directly to the livelihoods and well-being of community members, and includes trips to the bird sanctuary, paddle boat tours of the flooded forest by day and night, Home Stays, community based activities, a visit to the Saray Tonle cooperative, the Water Hyacinth Handicraft Workshop and much, much more

The ‘bird sanctuary’ at the Prek Toal core area of the Tonle Sap Biosphere Reserve has been called “the single most important breeding ground in Southeast Asia for globally threatened large waterbirds.” The Biosphere covers 31,282 hectares at the

northwest tip of the Tonle Sap Lake and plays host to species including Greater and Lesser Adjuncts, Black-headed Ibis, Pain- ted Stork, Milky Stork, Spot-billed Pelican,

Grey-Headed Fish Eagle and many more species. Of the three Biosphere core areas on the Tonle Sap Lake, Prek Toal is the most accessible from Siem Reap and the most popular with birdwatchers.


Kampong Phluk is a cluster of three villages of stilted houses built within the floodplain about 16 km southeast of Siem Reap. The villages are primarily Khmer and have about 3000 inhabitants between them. Flooded mangrove forest surround sthe area and is home to a variety of wildlife including crab-eating macaques.

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Peace-making is the middle path of equanimity, non-duality, and non-attachment. It is the perfect balance of wisdom and compassion; the perfect meeting of humanitarian needs and political realities.
It is compassion without concession and peace without appeasement.
Loving-kindness is the only way to peace.

Maha Ghosananda, August 26, 2013


"The highest form of happiness in the world is peace. And it is a stepp-by-step process that begins and ends in the mind."
"We have to prefer the vigilance of struggle. We have to listen with patience and forbearance. Everyday from the beginning, in the middle, and to the end. Every breath in and every breath out. Every posture, sitting, standing, and walking, is important."
"We have to achieve perfection."
Maha Ghsoananda, July 8, 2013


Every step is an arrival and a departure on the path of peace.

Maha Ghosananda, May 5, 2013

antiseptic, antibacterial and anti- inflammatory activity.

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Khmer name:  Thkoov

Latin name: Anthocephalus


Family name:  RUBLACEAE

English name:  Wild Cinchona

Plant Characteristic: Tree from 6-15 metres tall . The leaves are simple, are simple, alternate, oblo- ng and 8 centimetres by 15 centim-etres. The upper surface is glabro- us, green and inflorescence in axill- ary globuse head. The flowers are yellow with multiple fruits that yellow 6 cetimetres in diameter. The skin of the fruit hairy and is edible.

Growing Place:  Found in secon- dary forest in tropical Cambodia and often cultivated as a shade tree

along the riversides. It grows rapi- dly for wood used in the paper industry.

Usage Part:  Stem, bark and leaves.

Treatment:  The stem and bark decoction are reputedly effective against all pains. The juice of the fruits and decoction of the bark have reputedly been used as an antipyretic and often applied to the fprehead of infants. the leaves, dri- ed and smoked, is used to relieve headaches and treat allergic rhin- itis.

  During the dry season when the lake is low, the buildings in the villages seem to soar atop their 6-meter stilts exposed by the lack of water. At this time of year many of the villagers move out onto the lake and build temporary houses. In the wet season when water level rises, the villagers move back to their permanent houses on the floodplain, the stilts now hidden under the water. Kampong Phluk’s economy is, as one might expect, based in fishing, primary in shrimp harvesting.

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Kampong Phluk Flooded Forest

Kampong Khleang is located on the northern lake-edge about 35 km east of Siem Reap town, more remote and less touristed than Kampong Phluk. Visitors to Kampong Khleang during the dry season are universally awestruck by the forest of stilted houses rising up to 10 meters in the air. In the wet season the waters rise to within one or two meters of the buildings.

Like Kampong Phluk, Kampong Khleang is a permanent community within the floodplain of the Lake, with an economy based in fishing and surrounded by flooded forest. But Kampong Khleang is significantly larger with near 10 times the population of Kampong Phluk, making it the largest community on the Lake.

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Kampong Khleang

Let us ensure you have an unforgettable adventure in Camb-

odia! For Inquiries or to Arrange a tour, do not hesitate to

 Contact Us!

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"Great beings receive their pleasure in giving gifts. In order to avoid harming others, they practice the five precepts. They practice non-indulgence in order to perfect their virtues. They practice meditation in order to know what is good, and what is not good for living beings." -- Maha Ghosananda, March 30, 2013


"In order to protect the environment we must protect ourselves. We protect ourselves by opposing selfishness with generosity, ignorance with wisdom, and hatred with loving-kindness."
"Selflessness, mindfulness, compassion, and wisdom are the essence of Buddhist meditation which enables us to be aware of the effects of our actions, including those destructive of our environment. Mindfulness and clear comprehension are at the heart of Buddhist meditation."
"Peace is realized when we are mindful of each and every step."
-- Maha Ghosananda, September 14, 2012


"Charity begins at home. By protecting ourselves, we protect the whole world. By loving ourselves, we love the whole world. When we say, 'May I be happy' we are speaking for everyone. The whole world is one. Life is one. We all share the same Buddha nature." -- Maha Ghosananda, May 29, 2011

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Khmer name: Nonorng Praheu 

                              Nororng moul

Latin name: Luffa cylindrica(L)


French name: Eponge vegetal

English name: Sponge gourd

Plant Characteristic:  Vine and hairy.

Leaf: Alternative, 5-7 leaves, cordate, serrate.

Flower: Grow in terminal with 5 petals and yellow.

Fruit: Oblanceolate, 30-50cm long, 6-8cm wide, stripes on the bark fruit; have fibroe when rips.

Seed: White initially then black when ripe.

Growing Place: Cultivated as a vegetable.

Usage Part: Fruit, sponge, leaf, seed, root and vine.

Taste:   A little sweet.

Treatment:  Unripe fruit: measles, relapsed(7 earthworms put in the sponge gourd and bake and catch the water from it)- Sponge: Tight- ness in the chest, numbness, calf muscle cramps in the calf muscle, lack of milk secretion. (Morus alba’s branches, loofah spong and Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae)-Leaf: wh- ooping cough, temperature, dengue fever,(30g of fresh leaf grind with 7 pieces of charcoals and mix the liq- uid with a little sugar and drink) –Seed: cough, with phlegm, intest-

Local cures: just a question of packaging

    Around the world, traditional medicine has been shedding its image of black magic and is now being seen as an integral part of health care. Bou Saroeun and Peter Sainsbury look at the role and basis of traditional Khmer medicine.

     Bags of bark, dead birds and snakes hanging from the ceiling along with dried monkey pelts, still with their alimentary canal attached: this is a phar- macy.

    But while there are no pills or intravenous solut- ions it is wrong to assume there are not any effect- ive drugs for sale. It is just that their packaging is a bit different.

   The pharmacy at Psar O'Russey is run by Hem Sean, 65, and her Khmer medicine doctor Khan Mon, 64. They have been selling here since the Sangkum Reastr Niyum of the 1950s and 60s.

    Sean learned her craft from her father and he from his father. She says people ask her to mix Khmer medicine for illnesses from acne to stomach ache, fever to typhoid.

"Khmer medicine cannot guarantee to heal their ills 100 percent but it can help them some," she says.

     Sean gets most of the plant medicine from Kampong Speu and Kampong Chhnang provinces, and many of the animals from Ratanakiri.

     When asked what she would prescribe for malar- ia she says she would make up a selection of bark and herbs which were very bitter because this was very good for fever. This is no surprise to French scientist Laurent Pordie, who has been studying traditional medicine here.

    Pordie, a doctor of pharmacy who has been rese- arching hill tribe cures in Ratanakiri and Mondulkiri, says traditional healers use quite a sophisticated system of cataloguing plants based on their speed of action.

     He has identified four anti-malarial compounds in one plant alone. "They all have the same efficiency but how quickly they work differs."

    He says doctors usually use the quickest acting

plant first and then move on to the others if the original doesn't work.

   The availability, cultural acceptance and cheaper cost of traditional medicine has been recognized by the Ministry of Health, which runs a national center to study and research the topic.

    The center's director, Cheng Sun Kaing, a pharm- acist and medical masseur, has embarked on an ambitious plan with the help of the World Health Organization to develop and promote Cambodia's indigenous medical system.

    Khmer traditional medicine owes much to the Indian Ayurvedic tradition, a branch of medicine that

 is currently enjoying widespread popularity in the

west.The Khmer tradition derives its study and nom-

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Maha Ghosananda led Dhamma Yatra

(The Great Walk for Peace)

in Cambodia 1990's

There is an elderly Theravadin monk who had been sitting next to the Dalai Lama; he has an almost androgynous look about him and clearly shines with an inner light. When His Holiness entered each day to take his seat with the other Buddhist... monks, he seemed to greet this person with a special respect. I can't locate his name on the program but am looking forward to see what role he plays here. He has been sitting quietly throughout the conference and is the only Buddhist participant who has not spoken yet. I wonder if he simply doesn't speak, as a practice. During the sessions, he looks neither left nor right, and exhibits the same demeanor during meals, as well.

On Friday morning, we hear one of his disciples read his short, but moving paper. Maha Ghosananda is a Cambodian Buddhist who not only speaks, but is fluent in fifteen languages. I understand that he was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1995 and 1996, for his work with Cambodian refugees. His life has been one long movement in the field of nonviolence and he has clearly imbibed many Gandhian ideals in his work. He says: "Reconciliation does not mean that we surrender rights and conditions. It means that we see ourselves in the opponent-for what is the opponent but a being in ignorance and we ourselves are also ignorant of many things. Therefore, only loving kindness and right min-

inal worms, diuretic- Root: Runny nose, rhinnitis- Vine: Backache, bronchitis, cough and rhinitis

Dosage :    5-1og of dry plant a day.

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Khmer name: Sdau

Latin name: Azadiracha indica A


Family name: Meliaceae

French name: Margosier

English name: Neem/Margosia


Description: A large tree with a stra- ight truck. Leaves primate, 5-6 leaf- lets pairs; ovate, lanceolate, sessile or sub-sessile, acuminate, serrate edge, oblique, glabrous. Flo- wers white, numerous. Fruits dru- pes, oval and elonggated yellowish green. Seed one, linear oblongoid.


Distribution: Naturalized in many areas especially in middle parts of Cambodia.


Part used: Bark, leaves, flowers.


Indications: Diabetes, skin diseases, malaria, fever, dysentery, colic, round worm and pin worm, injuries, oedema.


Dosage: Leaves and flower are used as salad. Decoction of leaves and flo- wers in a a dose of 200-400 ml or dried power in dose of 5-10 mg are orally taken for diabetes, antiseptic purpose. Ash of leaves and flowers are externally taken in a a dose of 300-600 ml for malaria, fever, dyse- ntery. Dried powder in a dose of 4-5 mg with honey is orally taken for colic and anthelmentic activities. Slurry if bark is externally used infl- amation and injuries.

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enclature of anatomy and physiology from Ayurvedic medicine. Chinese and hill tribe techniques have been melded into the Khmer medicinal way.

    One of center's aims is to bring together all this experience and knowledge. Its first task is to record the plants and cures that are now in use. From the- re the center will identify effective treatments for use in primary health care. There are also plans to look for new treatments and manufacture herbal medicine products.

   There is a positive spin-off in promoting the use of traditional medicine - it is cheap and readily availa- ble, even in rural areas.

   Kaing believes there is a complementary role for both western and traditional medicine. He says neit- her is better than the other and often when one fails, the other can cure.

    However he says the standards of equipment used in the preparation of medicines differs widely in each discipline.

"[The west] has better technology for producing medicines, and management checking systems, and in high quality equipment. My department has to make sure the Khmer traditional medicines are equally efficient and of good quality."

    A woman buying medicine at Sean's pharmacy says she also uses a combination of traditional and western medicine. "Some people get healed by the Khmer medicine after they have spent a lot of money on western medicine."

"I took my children for a check-up at a traditional Khmer doctor and he ordered this medicine for my children's sore eyes. Sometimes Khmer medicine is better than tablets."      

    The center aims to set standards for the use of traditional medicine, its production and the training of doctors. However, one of Phnom Penh's most well known traditional doctors, Ly Bunarith, started his job informally, brought about more through necessity than desire.

   He says he became a Khmer doctor when the Khmer Rouge forced him and his family out of Phn-

om Penh and into the jungle.

    When his wife became ill through lack of food and heavy work he asked local villagers what he could do to help her. They suggested a particular type of vine. When this cured her he started to keep mental notes of all the remedies the villagers could tell him.

   But Bunarith's wife got ill again, very seriously, and this time the local remedies failed to work. He took her back to his homeland in Khien Svay district, wher- re an elderly man named Kath produced a curing toni- c-this time with no relapse.

   Bunarith was impressed and began studying traditi-

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Fmr King Sihanouk (Cambodia)  & Maha Ghosananda

dfulness can free us." It seems he went to visit the Dalai Lama recently and the two never exchanged a wor- d-they simply sat in a long silence together—speaking in the only lang- uage that matters, the language of the heart.

When Maha Ghosananda begins to answer a few questions, his words come from the depths of his spiri- tual experience. The answers are always simple, direct, and focused on the need for the questioner to turn within. He is deeply impressive and there is a profound silence in the room. Later, there is an opportunity to speak with him privately, but only for a few moments. I have never met anyone so deeply involved in "social work," who so embodies the wisdom born of self-knowledge. He is clear about the approach to inner development: "Peace begins with oneself." It unfolds, he says, "step-by-step." Just before lunch Maha Ghosananda leads us, step-by-step, to visit Thomas Mert- on's grave. As we walk, we see him embody the twin Buddhist ideals of Metta or Loving-Kindness, and Min- dfulness. 

Matthew Greenblatt -- Gethsemani Encounter 1996.  January 14, 2013


Notice: Above captioned contents are repeated quotations by people who knew Maha well and posted on social medias.

Khmer name: Mrum

Latin name:Moringa oleifera Lamk

Family name: Moringaceae

French name: Ben aile’/Noix de ben

English name: Drum Stick


Description: A small middle size tree, bark corky. Leaves tripinnate; leafelets opposite, deciduous, ellipt- ic or obavate. Flowers white in large puberulous panicles. Fruits long pods with ribs. Seeds triangled, the angle winged.


Distribution: Grow wild or exten- sively cultivated ad a vegetable in throughout Cambodia.


Part use: Whole plant


Indications: Menstrual disorder, tingling and numbness, oedema, dry cough, mennorrhagia, hyperte-nsion, as agent to increase spermat-ogenesis, to improve memory.


Dosage: Decoction of root and bark together with jaggery in a dose of 100-200 ml for menstrual disord- ers. Slurry of root or bark is extern- ally used for oedema tingling and numbness and salad for tonic pur- pose.


Note: Pure Drum stick tea is very popular in Cambodia.

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Khmer name:  


Latine name: 


  albicans Blume


English name: Star gooseberry


Description: A perennial under shr- ub; erect slender woody stem, basal branches. Leaves alternate, pinnate, ovate-lanceolate, tip acute, base ob-

onal medicine under Kath. When people saw how hiswife had been cured Bunarith started to attract a following, earning enough to open a practice in Phnom Penh.

    Bunarith has worked and shared ideas with western doctors and believes the two disciplines can work together.

   "When I opened my shop, the Phnom Penh health department had all the Khmer traditional

doctors meet with western doctors to exchange opinions.

"The western doctors said that we were the same as them but the medicine is different."

   Bunarith says he can treat most kinds of illness, however he says injuries like compound fractures

are best left to western surgeons.

   For the moment business has slackened off a bit for Bunarith as some patients try western or Chine-

se medicine, but he is not too concerned.

   "The Khmer people like to try foreign styles but if their illnesses don't get better they come back to the Khmer traditional doctor."

Fri, 27 February 1998

Post Staff


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Paul Knitter, Maha Ghosananda, and Irfan Khan,

(photo by Marcus Braybrooke). Paul Knitter is a Christian theologian, teacher at Union Theological Seminary. His most recent book is "Without Buddha I could Not Be A Christian."
He was deeply influenced by Maha Ghosananda's example.
He is a leader in inter-religious unity, and of religious pluralism.

Maha Ghosananda

June 22, 2011

tuse. Axillary clustered inflorescen- ce,yellowish-red flower. Fruits glob- ose, berry white tinged with pink colour. Seeds ovoid.


Distribution: Grows wild but also cultivated in many places


Parts used: Leaves, fruits, flowers, roots.

Indications: Hepatitis and jaundi- ce, gastric bleeding, urinary disord- er, oedema, ringing ear, earache, constipation, stiffness.

Dosage: 10-15 gm of dried powder or 45-75 ml of decoction is orally used per day.




Excerpt: Cambodia Ministry of

                 Health-National Center of 

                 Traditional Medicine

Notice: This information contained herein is solely for education purpose, any question or concern please contact the author direct.

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Training Manual for Applied Agroforestry Practices-2013 Edition

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